How history is created. Production of porcelain
The technology of production of porcelain products has already been several hundred years. Some historians are inclined to believe that the manufacture of porcelain products began in China in the IV-VI centuries, other chroniclers believe that the countdown should be conducted from the XIII century. The first link the origin of porcelain with the famous Chinese tea ceremony.
In the European language this kind of ceramics is called porcelain from Italian porcellana - sea shell. In other languages it sounds like " Farfоr ". This name originates from the title of the Chinese emperor "Farfur" or "Fagfur", which means "son of heaven", "Imperial". According to another point of view porcelain first appeared not in China, but in Europe, more precisely in Italy.
All products from porcelain can be divided into 2 categories. They are:
- Solid porcelain is used for the production of dishes and in technology.
- Soft porcelain, as a rule, is used for the manufacture of artistic products.
The painting is also divided into:
- overglaze. Apply directly to the glaze before firing.
- underglaze. This technique, unlike the first one, is more practical. The painting is made before the application of the glaze and firing. Such dishes are not afraid of either washing in the dishwasher, or using them in the oven or microwave.
Let's take a closer look at all stages that the items go through before they get on sale and appear in our houses.
- Creation of blanks.
The gypsum form is used to manufacture models of future products. The mold is filled with the finished porcelain mass, consisting of kaolin, quartz and feldspar. Liquid mass will take a long time to freeze finally. All the details of the item are carried out separately, their own forms are created for each one. For example, the handle or tracery patterns are made in such a special way. Later all the details are fastened together. This work requires care and jewelry accuracy.
- Grinding and baking in the oven.
The second stage is no less laborious. All products must be carefully sanded, removing all the defects and roughness. The seams, which are the result of gluing of the parts of the item, are also processed. After the item has become smooth, it is being roasted for about 7-8 hours in a special oven.
- The third stage, though less laborious than the previous two, is no less responsible, because of the quality control of the resulting products. For this purpose they are placed in a Magenta - a chemical solution that helps to detect cracks. The items are immersed into the Magenta, and all the defects, if there are any, will be painted into a bright pink color. This is due to the properties of the Magenta to penetrate the material. All the shortcomings are immediately at a glance. The items with defects are recycled.
- Painting of the product is the most painstaking and creative part of the entire manufacturing process. Each item, despite the fact that it is cast in the same forms, acquires its uniqueness and originality in the hands of the artist, because each master has his own exclusive manner of plying the brush.
- Paraffin-glaze baths. After the first-class masters of art painting worked on the product, it is sent to the glaze. It is first placed in paraffin, and then in tanks with white glaze.
- The second and last firing lasts for 18 hours. Incidentally, the firing temperature is 1350 degrees Celsius.
Having fire, water and copper pipes in the literal sense, so beloved porcelain appears. The glaze shimmers, blue patterns and various designs immediately catch the eye.
So long and laboriously world-famous porcelain is created. That is why it is famous not only for its originality, but also for its strength, since the production process is followed by first-class masters.